|जयपुर की प्रमुख तस्वीरे||जयपुर का प्रशासकीय संघठन||जयपुर का मानचित्र
|जयपुर के पर्यटन स्थल||जयपुर की सांख्यिकीय रूपरेखा||जयपुर के महत्वपूर्ण नम्बर
Jaipur is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, after whom the city has been named. The city today has a population of 3.1 million. Jaipur is known as the Pink City of India.
The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. The observatory, Jantar Mantar, is one of the World Heritage Sites. Included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Agra, Jaipur is an extremely popular tourist destination in Rajasthan and India.
|Population||2.323 million (2001)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|• Elevation||431 m (1,414 ft)|
Jaipur the capital of Rajasthan state in India was founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, a Kachwaha Rajput, who ruled Jaipur State from 1699-1744. Initially his capital was Amber, which lies at a distance of 11 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water. Jaipur is the first planned city of India and the King took great interest while designing this city of victory. He consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the layout of Jaipur.
After several battles with Marathas, Jai Singh was keen on the security aspect of the city. Due to this reason, he focused on his scientific and cultural interests to make a brilliant city. Being, a lover of mathematics and science, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him design the city architecture. Vidyadhar referred the ancient Indian literature on astronomy, books of Ptolemy and Euclid, and discussed the plan with the King.
With a strategic plan, the construction of the city started in 1727. It took around 4 years to complete the major palaces, roads and square. The city was built following the principles of Vastu Shastra. The city was divided into nine blocks, out of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, whereas the remaining seven blocks were allotted to the public. In order to ensure the security, huge fortification walls were made along with seven strong gates.
According to that time, architecture of the town was very advanced and certainly the best in Indian subcontinent. In 1878, when Prince of Wales visited Jaipur, the whole city was painted in Pink color to welcome him and after that Jaipur was titled ‘Pink City’. Still, the neat and broadly laid-out avenues, painted in pink provide a magical charm to the city. Jaipur is rich in its cultural and architectural beauty, which can be traced in the various historical and aesthetic places that reside in the city. This city of victory really wins the hearts of the people with its splendid charisma.
In the 19th century the city grew rapidly and became prosperous; by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit with gas. The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were in metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city also had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) initiated under the reign of the enigmatic Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. There was also a wealthy and enterprising community of native bankers, particularly the Jains and the Marwaris.
Jaipur, the capital city of the Indian state of Rajasthan is situated in the eastern border of Thar Desert, a semi-arid land. This state is one of the biggest of the country which shares the international boundary with Pakistan on the western side. Jaipur is popularly known as the pink city and is one of the well-planned cities in India, apparently, also the first. It is positioned at an altitude of 1417 feet above the sea level. On three sides, the city is enclosed by the Aravali hills and this is why, it is safeguarded from the rough desert. In the north, it is surrounded by Sikar and Mahendragarh district; in the south by Tonk; in the east by Alwar, Dausa and Sawai Madhopur; and in the west by Nagaur and Ajmer district.
The total length of Jaipur extending from east to west is about 180 km whereas the width from north to south is about 110 km. The main rivers passing through the Jaipur are Banganga and Sabi. About 28.65 million cubic meter ground water resources are available in Jaipur. To provide the drinking water to the old city, there is Ramgarh dam on the River Ban Ganga. The main minerals of the city are copper, iron, dolomite, white marble, glass and silicon. Sambhar Lake, which is the only natural lake with salty water is also the leading source of good quality of salt in the state as well as country, is very close to Jaipur.
Jaipur has a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification, receiving over 650 millimetres (26 in) of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) and with little or no humidity. There are however occasional cold waves that lead to temperatures near freezing.
Jaipur International Airport located in the satellite town of Sanganer, 11 kms from the city centre is the main air gateway to Jaipur. There are direct flights to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Udaipur, Jodhpur, and Aurangabad. The upgradation of the Jaipur airport has led to improved connectivity and wider choice of services to air travellers, boosting international tourism and economic development of the region.
Jaipur is connected to New Delhi and all main cities in India. From Delhi, there are many trains that connect Jaipur and other cities in Rajasthan. Palace on Wheels is the most well known train mainly used by tourists. Other important trains include, Shatabdi Express and Pink City Express both from Delhi.
Jaipur is well connected to all the major cities around the state of Rajasthan. The National Highway No 8 links Jaipur to Delhi and Mumbai, National Highway No 12 links Jaipur to Kota and Baran district and National Highway No 11 links Jaipur to Bikaner and Agra. RSRTC operates bus service to all the parts of Rajasthan, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Jaipur is part of the Golden Travel Circuit of India that includes Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur.
Taxis and autos are the most convenient way of moving inside the city as well as to reach some of the locations in the proximity. To move inside the city, you can also look for cycle rickshaws, which are easily available and much cheaper than other transportation modes.
Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL), RSRTC under JNNURM, operates City buses. The service operates more than 300 regular and low-floor buses. The three major bus depots are Vaishali Nagar, Vidhyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.
A rapid transit rail project by the name Jaipur Metro is under progress. It will provide means of faster commuting for the city residents. It is expected to be operational by 1st August 2013.