|जोधपुर की प्रमुख तस्वीरे||जोधपुर का प्रशासकीय संघठन||जोधपुर का मानचित्र
|जोधपुर के पर्यटन स्थल||जोधपुर की सांख्यिकीय रूपरेखा||जोधपुर के महत्वपूर्ण नम्बर
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. After its population crossed a million, it has been declared as the second 'Metropolitan City' of Rajasthan. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name, the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar desert.
The city is known as the "Sun City" for the bright, sunny weather it enjoys all the year round. It is also referred to as the "Blue City" due to the vivid blue-painted houses around the Mehrangarh Fort. The old city circles the fort and is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded greatly outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists.
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|• Elevation||231 m (758 ft)|
According to Rajasthan district Gazetteers of Jodhpur and the Hindu epic Ramayana (composed up to 4th century AD), Abhiras (Ahirs) were the original inhabitants of Jodhpur and later Aryans spread to this region.Jodhpur was also part of the Gurjara – Pratihara empire and until 1100 CE was ruled by a powerful Bargujar King. Jodhpur was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a state which came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.
In between 1540 to 1556, Afghans were in control of most of North India. Rajasthan born Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly called Hemu, who started his career as a supplier of various types of merchandise to Sher Shah Suri empire, held various positions in capital Delhi as 'Incharge of Food Affairs', 'Minister of Internal Security', 'Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army' with Islam Shah Suri and Adil Shah, who ruled north India from Punjab to Bengal at that point in time. Hemu, who took as the military commander of Afghan army in 1553, crushed the first rebellion, killing the Governor of Ajmer province Juneid Khan and appointed his own Governor in Rajasthan. Hem Chandra won several battles (22) throughout North India against Afghan rebels and twice against Akbar at Agra and Delhi, before his coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7th Oct. 1556 as a 'Vikramaditya' king. Hemu lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat on 5 November 1556, and the area came under Mughal king Akbar.
Early in its history, the state became a fief under the Mughal Empire, owing fealty to them while enjoying some internal autonomy. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world: new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India.
Aurangzeb briefly sequestrated the state (c.1679) on the pretext of a minority, but the rightful ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years. The Mughal empire declined gradually after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue; rather than benefiting from circumstances, Marwar descended into strife and invited the intervention of the Marathas, who soon supplanted the Mughals as overlords of the region. This did not make for stability or peace, however; 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought and gratefully entered into subsidiary alliance with the British in 1818.
During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability that were a hallmark of this era. The land area of the state was 23,543 sq mi (60,980 km2) its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £35,29,000/. Its merchants, the Marwaris, flourished without let or limit and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second city of Rajasthan.
At the time of partition, ruler of Jodhpur Hanwant Singh did not want to join India, but finally due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallab Patel, the then Home Minister at the centre, the princely state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic. Later after State Reorganization Act, 1956 it was made part of the state of Rajasthan.
The climate of Jodhpur is generally hot and semi-arid, but with a rainy season from late June to September (Köppen BShw). Although the average rainfall is around 450 millimetres (18 in), it is extraordinarily variable. In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres (0.94 in), but in the flood year 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres (46.4 in).
Temperatures are extreme throughout the period from March to October, except when monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April, May and June, high temperatures routinely exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's generally low humidity rises and this adds to the normal discomfort from the heat.
The Handicrafts industry has in recent years eclipsed all other industries in the city. By some estimates, the furniture export segment is a $200 million industry, directly or indirectly employing as many as 200,000 people. Other items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles, ink and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manufacture of such items as glass bangles, cutlery, carpets and marble products.
After handicrafts, tourism is the second largest industry of Jodhpur. Crops grown in the district include wheat and the famous Mathania red chillies. Gypsum and salt are mined. The city serves as an important marketplace for wool and agricultural products. The Indian Air Force, Indian Army, Indo Tibetan Border Police and Border Security Force maintain training centers at Jodhpur.
The administration of Jodhpur is consisting of a District Collector, followed by 4 Additional District Magistrates (I,II, Land Conversion and City ADM). Presently, the Collector and District Magistrate is Gaurav Goyal (IAS). The city is also under Police Commissioner system, with Biju George Joseph (IPS) as Police Commissioner of the city.
The upcoming 9 MMTPA Refinery and Petrochemical complex to be set up by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Pachpadra,Barmer will transform the industrial scene of the city drastically. Pachpadra lies just 60 kilometres from the industrial area of Boranada in Jodhpur. Around 120 by-products that are produced by the refinery are going to provide huge opportunities for new industries to be set-up in and around Jodhpur.
India's most ambitious industrial development project, the over USD 100 dollars Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project is also going to impact the industrial scenario in Jodhpur in a big way. Marwar Junction which is located about 100 kilometres from Jodhpur will be one of the nine frieght loading points along the DMIC route. Jodhpur and Pali districts fall under the region that is going to be developed as a manufacturing hub for the DMIC.
The city has well established rail, road and air networks connecting it to other major cities of the country.
Jodhpur is the divisional headquarters of the North Western Railways (NWR). It is well connected with railways to major Indian cities like Alwar, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Pune, Kota, Kanpur, Bareilly, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Dhanbad, Guwahati, Nagpur, Lucknow, Gwalior, Jaipur etc. To decongest the main Jodhpur station (JU), the suburban station Bhagat ki Kothi (BGKT) is being developed as the second main station for passenger trains. At present 70 passenger trains originate from both the stations. Some of the important trains originating from Jodhpur railway station are- Ranthambore Express (Jodhpur to Indore), Mandore Express (Jodhpur to Delhi), Suryanagri Express (Jodhpur to Mumbai), Marudhar Express (Jodhpur to Lucknow), Howrah Superfast (From Jodhpur to Howrah) etc.
For further train running information, timings, halts etc. visit the official website of Indian Railways
Luxury train service- For experiencing the true magnificence and royal opulence of Rajasthan, luxury trains Palace on Wheels and Royal Rajasthan on Wheels are run jointly by RTDC and Indian railways.
Jodhpur Airport is one of the prominent airports of Rajasthan. The airport is due for being transformed into an international airport. The work on which is going to start very soon. At present, there are daily flights from Delhi and Mumbai to the city operated by Air India and Jet Airways. From November 2013, Spice Jet and Indigo are also going to start their services from Jodhpur airport.
Jodhpur is connected by road to all major cities in Rajasthan and neighbouring states like Delhi, Ahmedabad, Surat, Ujjain, Agra etc. Apart from deluxe and express bus services to cities within the state, Rajasthan Roadways provides Volvo & Mercedes Benz bus service to Delhi, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Udaipur and Jaisalmer (click here for time table and reservations). Recently, Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is launched in the city with low floor and semi low floor buses plying on major routes. Jodhpur is connected to the National Highway network with three National Highways and to the Rajasthan State Highway network with ten state highways. National Highways passing through Jodhpur:
NH-65, Ambala-Kaithal-Hissar-Fatehpur-Jodhpur-Pali, total length= 690 km
NH-112, Junction with NH-14 near Bar connecting Jaitaran-Bilara-Kaparda-Jodhpur-KalyanpurPachpadra-Baloootra-Tilwara-Kher-BagundiDhudhwa-madhasar-Kawas and terminating at its junction with NH 15 near Barmer, total length= 343 km
NH-114, Junction with NH-65 near Jodhpur connecting Balesar – Dechhu and terminating at its junction with NH-15 near Pokaran, total length= 180 km
State Highways passing thorugh Jodhpur:
SH-19, Phalodi (NH 15) to Needar via Ahu, Chadi, Pachudi, Nagaur, Tarneu, Khatu Kalan, Khatu khurd, Toshina, Kuchaman City, Bhuni, Maroth, Deoli Minda, Renwal Crossing, Kaladera, total length= 368 km
SH-21, Dantiweara to Merta City via Pipar City, Borunda, total length= 97 km
SH-28, Phalodi (NH 15) to Ramji ki Gol via Deeechu, Shergarh, Pachpadra, Balotra, Sindri, Guda Malani.total length= 259 km
SH-58, Jodhpur to Bheem up to NH 8 via Vinakiya, Rajola Sojat, Rendiri, Bhaisana, Sojat Road, Kantalia, Baban. total length= 142 km
SH-61, Phalodi ( NH 15) to Mandal via Osian, Mathania, Jodhpur, Khejrali, Bhatenda, Saradasamand, Jadan, Marwar Junction, Auwa, Jojawar, Kamalighat, Devgarh, Rajaji ka kareda.total length=349 km
SH-62, Bilara to Pindwara via Sojat, Sireeyari, Jojawar, Bagol, Desuri, Sadri, Sewari.total length=187 km
SH-63, Banar to Kuchera via Bhopalgarh Asop.total length=129 km
SH-65, Sheo (NH 15) to Shergarh via Bhiyad, Barnawa Jagger, Patodi, Phalsoond.total length=155 km
SH-66, Siwana to Dhandhaniya (NH 114) via Samdari, Kalyanpur, Mandli Rodhawa Kalan.total length=90 km
SH-68, Dangiyawas (NH 112) to Balotra via Kakelao, Khejarli, Guda Kakani, Luni, Dhundhara, Rampura, Samdari.total length=131 km